Climate and Soil Requirement for Brinjal Cultivation

Climate:

1. It is a warm season crop and is very susceptible to frost.

2. Late round varieties are more tolerant of frost than the early long varieties. Cool nights and short summers are unfavorable to its satisfactory yields.

3. It requires a long growing season with the high average day and night temperatures. Its seed germinates well at 77 °F temperature.

4. A daily mean temperature of 13-210C is most favorable for successful production.

Soil and its Preparation:

1. Though it can be grown on different types of soils, yet it is grown with considerable success in fine and rich loam soils that are deep and well-drained.

2. The soil pH should not "be higher than pH 5.5 to 6.0 for its better growth and development. As the crop remains in the field for a number of months therefore, the soils should be well prepared by being ploughed 4-5 times before transplanting the seedlings. When the field is well prepared and leveled, the beds of suitable size are made in the field before transplanting.

Sowing Time and Seed Rate for Brinjal Cultivation

Sowing Time and Seed Rate:

Brinjal can grow twice during the year. The sowing time is May-June, August- September and December- January, The 700 gms to 1000 gms seed required to raise the seedlings for 1 ha, area.

Layout and Spacing for Brinjal Cultivation

Layout and Spacing:

Ridges and furrow type of layout is use. Seedlings are raised on raised bed. Spacing is 75 x 60 cm. to 75x75 cm.

Manures and Fertilizers for Brinjal Cultivation

Manures & Fertilizers:

30 to 50 cartloads of FYM or compost is applied at the time of field preparation. In brinjal 60 kg N, 50kg P. should be-applied per hectare.

Improved Varieties of Brinjal

Improved Varieties:

Manjari gota, Pusa purple round, Pusa purple long, Pusa purple Cluster, Pusa kranti, Pragati, Aruna, ABV-1, ABH-1. Local: Dorala, Bhatai, Hingana Dorala, Gulabi Dorala.

Brinjal (Solanum melongena):

1. Krishna:

Krishna is a Fuji hybrid released in 1991 by MPKV Rahuri for Western Maharashtra. Plants tall, hardy and resistant to lodging. Egg-shaped, spiny, purple coloured fruits with white stripes borne mostly singly or occasionally in pairs. Good colour retention. Good acceptance in the home market. Average yield is 480 quintals per hectare.
(MPKV, Rahuri).

2. Manjari Gota:

Developed by selection from a local germplasm collected from village Manjari near Pune and released by the Department of Agriculture, in 1965 for Western Maharashtra, Plants are medium tall and spreading, spines on leaves, mid­ribs and peduncle the fruits. Fruits are round purple -with white stripes. Average yield is 250 quintals per hectare. (MP.K.V. Rahuri).

3. Pragati:

Developed by selection from a cross Vaishali x Manjari Gota and released in 1988. It is an improved version of Valsbali. Plants are hardy and resistant to lodging, egg shaped purple fruits with-white stripes bome in clusters with spines on pedicel. Duration is 180^-1 90 days. Average yield is 350 quintals per hectare.
(M.P.K.V, Rahuri)

4. Vaishali:

Developed by selection from a cross Manjari Gota x Arka Kusumakar and released in 1985. Plants are medium and spreading. Fruits oblong purple with1 white stripes. Fruits are borne in clusters (3"-4). Average yield is 350 quintals per hectare. (MPKV, Rahuri).

5. Anuradha:

It gives about 10 per cent higher yield than Manjari Gota. It has shining and attractive fruit colour (purple and white stripes). Fruits are bome in cluster with spines on fruits, leaves and stem. (MAU, Parbliani).

6. ABV-I:

This variety is released by MAU, Parbhani in 1985. It has become popular with the cultivators of Marathwada It has erect plant habits with faint purple stem colour and dark green leaves. Fruits are small round (50 g/fruit) with green purple stripes and spines on the calyx. Average yield is 250 quintals per hectare.(MAU, Parbhani)

7. Aruna:

Notified during the year 1985-86. Plants are medium in height; fruits are oval in shape and violet in colour. Days to first harvest are 90 - 95. Yield is 3GO-385 quintals per hectare during kharif season. 200-225 quintals per hectare during summer season.
(PKV, Akola).

8. PhuleHarit:

Developed by employing pure line selection. 3t is good for kharif season. Average weight is 190 g. Fruit length is 16.2-cm. Fruit colour is green with white stripes at the tip, fruit surface is smooth. It produces 25 fruits per plant. Average yield is 330 quintals per hectare. Number of pickings are 18. Duration is 180 days.(MPKV Rahuri).

Irrigation for Brinjal Cultivation

Irrigation:

Irrigate the field after every third or fourth day during the summer season and after 12 to 15 days during the winter season. Timely irrigation is very important for high yields of brinjal. Brinjal fields should be regularly irrigated to keep the soil moist during frosty days.

Insect Pest Control in Brinjal Cultivation

Insect Pests of Brinjal:

1) Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer:

It is one of the major and serious insect pests of brinjal. A short pinkish caterpillar bores into the terminal shoot and eats internal tissue; it bores into the young fruit through the calyx .leaving on visible sings of infestation. The large holes asually seen on the fruits are the exist holes of caterpillar. The insect affected fruits becomes unfit for consumption.

Control Measures:

i) The insect affected part should be clipped along with insect and destroyed any fruit with holes should be picked and destroyed.

ii) The affected crops should be sprayed with phosphamidon (demicron-100 EC) @.0.5 ml or diochlorovos (Sumthion-50 Ecfolilhion-50 ECc) @1 ml per litter of water at fortnightly interval or spraying with carbaryl 0.20% or Monocrotophos 0.05%

2) Brinjal Stem Borer:

A pale white caterpillar bore into the stem and kills the plant Control measures: Same as for brinjal fruit and shoot borer.

3) Leaf Eating Beetle:

The beetle and grab feed on the leaves and other tender parts leading to a considerable reduction in the .yield of the egg plant.

Control Measures:

i. Hand picking of egg and larval is the best method of, controlling this pest if infestation is only in few plants.

ii. This insect can effectively be controlled by spraying crop with Endosulphan
(Thioden -35 EC) or Phentrothion (Sumithion-50 EC)@ 2 ml or Fenthion
(Lebacid-IOOO EC) or Thiomiton (Ekatin-25 EC )@ I ml per litre of water.

4) Nematode:

The nature of damage and control measures of nematode is same as for potato nematode. The egg plants are also affected by mite, Jassids, Aphids and Mealy bug. They suck the sap from the leaves and in severe cases the whole plantation looks yellowish and leaves drop down prematurely. These insects except mites can effectively be controlled by spraying the crops with Methyl parathion (Metacid 50 EC) or Oxidemiton methyl (Metassystox 25 EV) @ 1 ml or Malathion-50 EC @ 2ml per litter of water at fortnightly. Interval, The mites can be controlled by spraying the crop with Dicophol (KeIthane-18.5EC ) @ 2 ml or Morocite-40 EV @ 1 rnl per litter of water.

Diseases Management in Brinjal Cultivation

Diseases of Brinjal:

1) Damping Off:

It is a serious disease of brinjal seedlings and mainly occurs in nursery bed. The disease infected seedlings rot at ground level and then the plants fall over ground. The seedlings die in patches.

Control Measures:

1. The seed bed should be treated with Formalin before sowing of seeds.
2. The seeds should be treated without water (30 minutes al 520 C) or Cerasan or Agrosan G.N. before sowing of seed.
3. The seedlings in the nursery should be sprayed with any fungicides at an regular interval.

2) Phomopsis Blight and Fruit Rot:

It is a serious disease of brinjal. The fungus attacks all parts of the plants above ground. Dark brown lessions appear on the stem and round to oval spots are formed on the leaves. Disease fruits show short and watery lessions which litte on become black and mummified.

Control Measures:

i. Use of disease free seeds, seeds treatment with some fungicide and long crop rotation are the most common remedial measures of this disease.

ii. Disease resistant variety (Such as Pusa Bhairab, Pusa Cluster etc.) should be
Cultivated,

iii. The disease can effectively be controlled by weekly spraying of nursery and field with Zineb (Dithane-Z-78) or Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) @ 2.5 gm per litter of water.

3) Little Leaf of Brinjal:

The affected plant produces numerous tinny Yellow I leaves and does not bear fruits. The disease is transmitted by leaf hopper.

Control Measures:

i. The disease affected plants should be destroyed,
ii. The insect vector should be controlled by spraying the crop with Dimethoate
(Rogor-30 EC or Oxydemiton methyl (Metasystox-25 EG) or Monocrotophos (Monocil )@ 1 ml per litre of water to check the spread of this disease,

iii. Disease resistant variety such as Pusa purple Cluster should be cultivated

Harvesting and Yield in Brinjal Cultivation

Harvesting:

Fruits are harvested when they are immature. They should be severed from the plant by cutting with small shears or a knife. Fruits are allowed to attain a good size and colour till they do not loose their bright, glossy appearance and become dull.

Yield:

In brinjal 250 to 300 quintals / ha

Intercultural Operations in Brinjal Cultivation

Intercultural Operations:

Inter-tillage or hoeing with some hand drawn implement .should be done in the crop (in such a way that a root system is-not damaged) to check the weeds. These operations should be fairly deep and close when plants are very small, but they should be made shallow as plants develop. The most serious weed in brinjal and other solanaceous crops is qrobancbai sp. It is a root parasite and should be controlled carefully according to the measures suggested by the experts.

According to Choudhury (1967), fruit set can be increases with plant regulators. These chemicals are either used for seed treatment or sprayed over the plants. Para-chlorophenoxyacetic acids, 2, 4, dichlorophenoxy-acsfic acid and napthaleneacetic acid, have been found effective for this. Out of these chemicals the cheapest and easily available is 2,4-D. The seed can be soaked for 24 hours in a solution of 2, 4-D at 4 to 5 ppm before sowing or spraying the whole plant with 2, 4-D solution at 2 ppm when the first few flower clusters appear. These treatments give about 50 per cent earlier and higher fruit set.