Area Under Cultivation
In India, jasmines are cultivated throughout the country but the commercial cultivation is confined to Coimbatore, Madurai, and Dindigul (Tamil Nadu); Bangalore, Bellary, Mysore and Kolar (Karnataka); Knnauj, Jaunpur and Gazipur (Utter Pradesh); Udaipur, Jaipur, Ajmer and Kota (Rajasthan); Ranaghat, Kolaghat, Pancskura (West Bengal); parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharastra.
It is a climbing, trailing and erect shrub; there are both evergreen and deciduous species with pinnate or simple leaves and fragnant flowers containing the oil of commerce.
Centre of Origin:- Spain and surrounding areas / East indies
Pollination System:- Cross pollinated
Chromosome No:- 2n=26,39
Botanical Name:- Jasminum grandiflorum /J. sambac
Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. The flower is used for various purposes viz., making garlands, bouquet, decorating hair of women, religious offering etc. It is also used for production of Jasmine concrete which is used in cosmetic and perfumery industries. More than 80 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Gundumalli / Madurai Malli), J. auriculatum (Mullai) and J. grandiflorum (Jathimalli / Pitchi). The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction.
Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country with an annual production of 77247 t from the cultivated area of 9360 ha. The flowers produced in the state are being exported to the neighbouring countries viz., Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Middle East countries. The major jasmine producing districts of Tamil Nadu are Dindigul, Salem, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, Trichy, etc. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings are less than 1 acre.
The species-wise recommended varieties are Gundumalli (Jasminum sambac), Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Auriculatum) and Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Grandiflorum).
Soil and Climate
Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days.
Land Preparation and Planting
One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 30cm3. Each pit should be applied 10 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m.
First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type.
It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July.
Inter Cultural Operations
Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent weeding done once in 2-3 months.
Training is basically done to give the desired shape to the plant whereas pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.
1. Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l is recommended.
2. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot - Drench the soil around plant with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g / l .
Season of flowering and harvesting
Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise.
Backward and Forward Linkages
The crop is grown widely in Tamil Nadu and the major inputs like planting material, fertilizers, etc. are available locally. The flowers have a good demand in the local market as well as it is being exported to some of the South East / Middle East Asian countries. No problems are anticipated on inputs or on marketing front. No new infrastructures need to be created for the activity.
Jasmine Cultivation in PIF
Jasmine cultivation – (Mullai)