Common diseases of goats are
explain as under:
Mostly occur from 6-8 weeks of pregnancy, veterinary treatment is needed
to control infertility. This could occur due to drinking water containing
salmonella typhinmurium. Abortion can occur in a goat fed on rich clover
Is also called Ketosis. This metabolic imbalance caused due to goat fed
large quantities of concentrated food.
Anaemia covers groups of conditions characterized by paleness of skin and
membrane. Symptoms can be seen nictitating membrane of the eyes, mucous
membrane of the mouth, skin around the udder and valve. Treatment can be
done by the use of iron injection 5ml Dexavin (Pfizer) or Ferrofax (Duphar).
Clinical symptoms: There is mild thermal reaction and diarrhea. Ulcerative
lesions appeared on inside the lower tip and gums. Preventive care: Tissue
culture rinderpest vaccine S/C could be used in pocket of infection.
If it is a loss of appetite, it could be voluntary Anorexia or
In goat kids it may be Navel infection arthritis caused by corynebacterium
pyogensis, streptococci, staphylococci, while non-superative arthritis is
by birth, caused due to deficiency of vitamins and minerals. In old age,
swollen joints from mycoplasmosis, occurs at 3-4 weeks of age.
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
Clinical symptoms: Sudden high temperatures (108°F), loss of appetite,
sudden death, in less per acute form, goat may live for a day and develop
Preventive care: Keep the
affected animal separate. Annual vaccination of goats in endemic area is
recommended. Massive doses of penicillin 1/M may response in goat.
This occurs due to lung worm infection or the feed place in drum, some
time goat gets irritation and bronchitis that can be controlled by
dampening the mixture with water or molasses water, this way dust in the
feed will be reduced. Chronic coughing also occurs in mycoplasmosis.
Brucellosis (Brucella organisms)
Clinical symptoms: Abortion in late pregnancy is the feature of the
disease, retention of placenta and metritis are common. In male goat,
infertility, orchitis and swollen joints are seen. Preventive care: Goats
should be tested for brucellosis and isolated or cull the positive
This occurs when goat heavily infested with worm, pale of mucous membrane,
along with protruding nictating membrane and scouring, swollen head with
Jaundice is seen in lepto spirosis, but the mucous membrane Jaundice often
seen with yellow serum exudes from facial skin.
This bloat occurs due to use of Lucerne hay, so goat becomes distressed,
stamps its feet, bleats, urinate frequently, walk with stilted action. To
prevent bloat, always use dry hay or dry pasture when ever feeding fresh
legumes. Goat feed should be prepared by the combination of dry pasture
with leaves of legumes. To avoid bloat, peanut oil sprinkled on feed is
Symptoms: It is an inflammation of urinary bladder, which show swelling of
value, staining of perineum, frequent straining with small amount of
urine, pus and blood in the urine, also show depression, anorexia and
excessive thirst. Treatment: With antibiotic plus use of 2 litre of warm
water 1 spoon of hibitane or Dettol.
Clinical symptoms: Pustular and scabby lesions develop on the muzzle and
lips. Bronchopneumonia and gastroenteritis have been observed in goat
kids. Morbidity rate is very high 50-60%, but mortality rate may be 5% in
Preventive care: To check the
spread, infected goat kids should be isolated. The lesions should be
treated with antiseptic drugs. In generalized or systemic infection
antibiotic should be given to prevent secondary bacterial complication.
Clinical symptoms: Goat kids under one month of age are commonly affected.
Important symptoms are fever, diarrhea. or dysentery. Loss of appetite,
dryness of hair and skin coat in later stages temperature became
Preventive care: Rectal swabs to
have E. coli and sensitivity test depending upon sensitivity, dose all
newly born goat kids with a specific antibiotic. Darzin with neomycin
chloromycetin, Septran and quixalin bolus etc., are commonly used.
Clinical symptoms: Pneumonia, sometimes diarrhea. is present in goats. The
pregnant goats may also abort in early stage of gestation. In young goat
kids arthritis is developed. Preventive care: Treatment with penicillin is
Cheesy Gland (CL)
It also called yolk boils, its scientific name is Caseous lymphadenitis is
caused by the bacterium coryne and bacterium pseudotuberculosis. This
bacterium causes the abscesses are boils usually visible as swollen lumps
under the jaw or on the neck. In goats, the head is most commonly
affected, so the most likely point of entry of this infection is through
abrasions on the head or in the mouth. For treatment five different brands
of cheesy-gland vaccines are available: Glanvac, cheesyvax, cydectin,
Eweguard, Guardian and Websters 6-in-1.
Clinical symptoms: Diarrhea., anemia, weakness and death have seen in
coccidiosis of goat kids , in old animal milk production is reduced with
foetid smell, develops.
Preventive care: Faecal
Examination is needed. Sulphamezathine or sulphadimidine 0.2 gm/kg body
weight. Amprosol 20% solution 100 mg/kg body weight 4-5 days are effective
or zoaquin (May and Baker).
It could be many types, severity and symptoms depends on the cause and
sites affected like:
1 - Labial dermatitis: This occur due to remains of milk
residue around the mouth of pan-fed goat kids, skin becomes hard,
cracked, leave disfigured area. Treated with Betnovate cream (Glaxo) or
gell, correct the situation.
2 - Labial and interdigital dermatitis: This developed
after eating plants like, nettles, ragwort azaleas or may be due to
Tromboild species mites attacks. Lanoline and petroleum jelly helps, in
case of mites Malathion 0.5% spray will help.
3 - Pustular dermatitis: This occurs on the teats and
udder so udder covered with pus-filled eruption of staphylococcus aureus,
it is treated by Phisohex which will break the pustules, clean with
dettol, also Betamethasone cream helps to heal the damage skin.
4 - Allergic dermatitis: This happen due to mosquito or
wasps bites to the skin area like udder and vulva. Treatment with
protective cream application.
5 - Mange mite: Demodex and psoroptes results into
intense itchy dermatitis. Treated with malathion and diazinon 10:1 as 1%
1 - Blepharitis: In this case inflammation of the eye
lids have seen , with continual ocular discharge, eye should be washed
with sodium sulphacetamid 2% solution, twice a day. Blepharitis occur
with entropion, that is a hereditary defect, it can be cured by survey.
2 - Conjunctivitis: This situation occur due to foreign
body like seeds, grass, thorns touch the cornea, which become swollen
and reddish. This can easily be cure by washing the eye with normal
saline solution (1 level teaspoon of salt plus 600ml of worm water).
3 - Pink-eye. Is a contagious opthalmia, animals affected
by mycoplasmosis, then ocular discharge also be seen. First eyes are
washed with saline water, then treatment with 2% sodium sulphacetamide
or Terramycin aerosol drops used in large herds. Individual animal is
given Gentamycin drops, 2 drops twice a day.
This show presence of blood diarrhea., it may be a symptom of
enterotoxaemia coccidiosis and some plant poisoning.
Is caused by toxin of clostridium perfringens type D.
Clinical symptoms: Severe pain
in the abdominal region, excitement, kids jump in the air and fell down,
and sudden death is there.
Preventive care: Kids of 3
months are should be vaccinated with 2.5 ml vaccine S/C and repeated after
14 days. Annual vaccination is required or sulphaguanidine tablets, 2-3
hours, total 30 tablets, plus 5ml chlorodyne for a hours.
Foot and Mouth Diseases Virus
(O, A, C and Asia one type).
Clinical symptoms: This disease have shown mild effect in adult goats.
Vesicles on the tongue, lips, checks, gums, dental pad and on the skin
between claws, occasional blisters on teats and under. Lameness is also
seen in adult goats, Deaths have been observed in young goat kids.
Preventive care: Isolate the
sick goats and vaccinate the herd at the face of outbreak. Wash the mouth
of infected goat with mild disinfectants like Alum, Potassium
permanganate. Apply boroglycerine on the ulcers.
Foot rot in goat
Foot rot is a contagious disease, caused by a mix of different bacteria
with the essential one being Dichelobacter nodosus. There are two main
forms of foot rot - virulent and benign, they are caused by different
strains of the bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus. The bacterial infection
cause varying degree of damage to the horn of the foot, leading to
lameness and significant loss of body weight. Foot rot disease, are two
types, benign and virulent. Both have been started as inflammations seen
as moisture, reddening and loss of hair between the toes. This disease is
checked by the gelatin gel test (protease) measure the activity of enzyme
protease, which are help to destroy the soft horn and tissue of the hoof.
Type of foot rots
Benign foot rot (U strains including mild U5 strains).
Virulent foot rot (mild “S” strain also hot U5 strains).
Virulent foot rot (more virulent “S” strains).
(Ticks, Sucking lice)
Clinical symptoms: This disease cause irrigation, also helps in transmit
of many diseases, causes anemia and poor health.
Treatment: Cythion at monthly
interval or whenever needed. Seven dust 5% is also used for lice.
Clinical symptoms: Slight fever, congested area and vesicles, appear on
ear, nose and udder. After vesicles containing pus, dry crust are formed.
In goat kids, high temperature is seen , but death occurs before
development of skin lesions.
Preventive care: Isolate the
sick goat and daily washing the lesions with hydrogen peroxide dilute with
equal part of warm water followed by antibiotic cream. Milkers hand
scrubbed in non-irritant antiseptic solution.
Hemorrhagic Septicaemia (P.
Clinical symptoms: High fever, difficulty in respiration, coughing and
sudden death may occur.
Preventive care: Vaccination
with H.S. Adjuvant vaccine is recommended before onset of rains.
In Sindh normal temperature in the day during summer month reach up-to
55°C, while goat normal temperature is 39-40°C. The high heat stress
causes stroke and death of animal.
This also called ‘milk fever’, this occur the day following kidding,
affected goats are unable to stand, breath slowly with force, fall into
comma, may die ,unless treated with injection of calcium barogluconate
with magnesium sulphate -60ml has to be given to the goat.
It is necessary, otherwise hooves grow to any shape, which brings extra
pressure on leg ligaments and tendons which cause pain and distortion.
This cause difficulty in walking, if the portion of hooves curled, then
outer horn may accumulate mud and dung, which results into putrification
and foot-rot. Always maintain correct proportion of toe to heel on the
ground. This varies in the front and hind feet. Hooves should be
trimmed every 3 months.
Hydrocyanic Acid (Jawar, Baru)
Clinical symptoms: Nervous symptoms and sudden death of the goat.
Preventive care: Blood is bright
red in colour, Sodium thiosulphate 2 gm in 15 ml of water s/cut and sodium
nitrite 1 gm are to be given.
It could be occur due to eating of azaleas, mangrove in flowers and fodder
sprayed with insecticides. The indigestion result into loss of appetite,
excrete flinty or small dropping, goat became lethargic. This need Epson
salts like 120g, 80g, 60g and 30g on successive days. Heavy doze of
magnesium carbonate 30g daily or Mylata 120g, three times a day used to
neutralise excessive fermentation. New and fresh food should be given
along with a mineral tonics like Ferri -Phos- Co (Parrishes food), and
Metatone (Park Davis) 30ml twice a day to restore appetite. Clove tea (use
12 cloves in 500ml of water, boil for 10 times, when cool divide into
three parts) use as 3 times a day help to restore appetite.
In case of anemia after illness,
then use 5ml concentrated iron (Dexavin - Pfizer) or FerroFax 2ml
Parentrovite (mixed) 1ml. Vitamin B12 for 3 days.
Johne’s Disease (M.
Clinical symptoms: The symptoms are goats show loss of body weight,
weakness and emaciation. Frequent diarrhea. in some adult goats also be
reported . The clinical disease observed after 1-2 years of age in goats.
Preventive care: Consultant the
goat health specialist for testing of your goats. Segregate and cull the
positive goat. There is no reliable test to detect J. D. in very initial
Insecticides (Aldrin, Endrin
Chlordane and Dieldrin)
Clinical symptoms: Uneasiness, dizziness and tremors, convulsions. Death
occurs due to respiratory arrest during coma are the important symptoms.
Preventive care: A saline
purgative may be given. To control convulsion Phenobarbital or largactil
may be given. Calcium gluconate 10% may be given 1/V followed by antidote.
Liver Fluke (Faciola gigantica)
Clinical symptoms: Diarrhea., emaciation and oedema of throat, are
Preventive care: Faecal
examination is essential. Zanil (ICI) @ 10-15 mg/kg body weight and
Distodin 20 mg/kg body weight are effective.
Mycoplasmosis (M. agalactiae, M.
capri, M. capricollum)
Clinical symptoms: The goat develops high rise in temperature along with
respiratory trouble. In some cases arthritis, mastitis in lactating goats
have been reported...
Preventive care: Treatment of
affected goats with tylosin or erythromycin was found to be effective in
early stage. Oxtetracyclin was also effective in reducing severity of
streptococci, E. coli, Mycoplasma agalactiae, M. arginini, Yeast and
Clinical symptoms: Fever in acute mastitis, udder is enlarged, hot
painful, milk become watery, inconsistency often with flakes of blood,
udder become hard, milk secretion very much reduced. In M. agalactiae, the
affected quarter become atrophic or agalactic.
Preventive care: After washing
with KMnO4 solution, this solution, remove the milk carefully from the
affected quarter. Introduce antibiotic 1/mammary infusion, leave for 24
hours and repeat for 3 days. But goat should be tested regularly to detect
It is an inflammation of udder tissues it divided into acute infection,
chronic infectious and miscellaneous causes.
Acute infection: Udder become
swollen, hot, tense, milk become watery or blood-stained, may contain
clots or pus. Antibiotic injection is used to cure the situation.
Chronic infection: The systems
are milk become sours soon, curdles, unpleasant, it need Rapid - Mastitis
Test, it need treatment of terramycin, orbenin L/A or aureomycin, avoid to
use chlora mpehnical because it reduces the milk production.
Is caused by bacterium Pseudomonas pseudomallei (Malleomyces pseudomallei),
found is soil and surface water, it effects goat through ingestion, cut or
wounds, biting insects, this bacterium infects lungs, spleen, lymph nodes
and then legs. This disease is diagnose by serological blood test. The
only cure is slaughter the animal.
Occurs after kidding or after false pregnancy. Symptoms are unusual
discharge from vagina with less of appetite. Cured by sulphanilamide by
mouth, sulphamezathine, sulphapyridine or sulphanidine tablets 2g twice a
day for 4-5 days.
Two types of lice are common in
goat biting lice (Damalinia Caprae and Damalinia-limbata) and sucking lice
(Linognathus stenopis). In both cases goat rub herself against fences,
walls and trees. treated by use of Malathion or Diazinon or pouring of
5-10 ml of Tiguvon (an oil based insecticide).
Mange (Sarcoptes, Demodatic and
Clinical symptoms: Flakey scruffy dandruff on the skin, severe itching,
hairlessness develops and the skin becomes thick, hard and corrugated.
Preventive care: Skin scraping
examination is essential. Clip hair and wash with warm water and soap.
Apply 0.5% malathion or 0.5% Seven or 0.06% Lindane as spray, Swab or dip
thrice at the interval of 7 days. Diptrex ointment 1% is effective.
Clinical symptoms: Respiratory difficulty staggering gait, falling sudden
death and urine positive for nitrate/nitrite are the usual clinical
Preventive care: Blood become
chocolate brown in colour, treat the sick goat with Vit. C and Methyline.
Parasitic gastroenteritis (Haemonchus,
Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum etc.)
Clinical symptoms: Diarrhea. severe anemia (white eyes), emaciation and
watery swelling under the jaw (Bottle Jaw) are the common symptoms.
Preventive care: Faecal
examination is necessary. Nilverm ICI @ 15 mg/kg body weight or Panacur @
5 mg/kg body weight and Thiobendazole 50 mg/kg body weight should be
Parasitic winter diarrhea. (Paramphistomiasis)
Clinical symptoms: Occurs from October to March, loose to watery
diarrhea., bottle jaw condition in advance, clinical cases are the main
Preventive care: the disease is
caused by immature stages. Postmortem of the affected animal is necessary
for diagnosis. Zanil @ 10-15 mg/kg and Nilzan 10-15 mg/kg body weight are
Parasitic - worm infestation
These are divided into four groups, parasites of true or fourth stomach,
parasites of small intestine, parasites of blind gut (Caecum) and
parasites of large intestine. Treatment by the use of broad spectrum
Clinical symptoms: There is mild thermal reaction and diarrhea. Ulcerative
lesions appeared on inside the lower lip and on the gums.
Preventive care: Tissue culture
rinderpest vaccine S/C could be used in pocket of infection.
Clinical symptoms: The disease develops usually after 20-60 days of bite,
but not less than 10 days of bite. The goat becomes strange in behaviour
and there is frothing and salivation. The goat does not eat or drink,
slowly becomes paralysed and dies within 10 days of onset of disease.
Preventive care: Vaccinate the
goat soon after dog bite.
Ring worm (Fungus)
Clinical symptoms: Inflammation of hair follicles, falling of hairs,
lesions are circular on the face, shoulder, neck, eyes, irritation and
rubbing, thick crusts or scales may appear.
Preventive care: After clipping
hair and scrubbing with water and soap, apply acid salicylic or benzoic
acid ointment 2.5% or tincture of iodine once daily till lesions heal or
Salmonella infection (Salmonellosis)
Happen due to the use of contaminated drinking water, results into loss of
weight and milk production.
It is viral disease, highly infectious, this virus is from pox family is
symptoms are scabby-pustular sores on the muzzle, tips and feet is also
called labial dermatitis symptoms occur 38-40 hours after contact, it
follows some minor injury caused by grass seeds or thistles, Lips
infected, there is soreness between the toes, sores around the scrotum,
eye, ears and valva. The only treatment is vaccination.
Caused by anaerobic bacterium called as clostridium tetani This bacteria
develops in absence of air. Such wound occur in dehorning, disbudding,
tattooing, castration, hoof trimming or accidentally from nails, tins,
dog-bites, fighting bucks or grass seeds. Treated with tetanus antitoxin
(100ml multi-dose CSL anti-toxin) or toxoid vaccine at 3-4 weeks, repeat
6-10 months after and then year.
Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)
Clinical symptoms: Irregular low grade fever of long duration, coughing,
difficulty in respiration, anemia, progressive emaciation and loss of body
weight are the common clinical manifestations.
Preventive care: Consult goat
health specialist and get your goat tested with tuberculin.
Tape worm (Moniezia etc.)
Clinical symptoms: Diarrhea and constipation, segments of tape worm may be
seen in the faeces.
Preventive Care : Panacur
@10mg/kg body weight is very effective. Kamala 2-3gm/animal is also
Trace element deficiency
Goats show symptoms of deficiency in trace elements of copper, boron,
iodine, cobalt, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The treatment can be done by
adding trace elements minerals in the diet. To cure deficiency symptoms
like: silent heat, delayed. Conception, low birth-weight, retarded growth,
higher proportion of male progeny and malfunction of fat metabolism.
Tympany/Blost (Acidosis due to
green fodder concentrate rich in carbohydrate such as Rice, Wheat, Gwar
Clinical symptoms: Inappetance, dullness depression, increase pulse and
respiration rate are seen. Distended abdomen on left side due to dilated
rumen (tight as drum). Froth comes from mouth , animal became restless,
repeated lying down and die in short period.
Preventive care: Drench
carefully 28 gm soda in 284 ml of hot water. A cup of mineral oil may also
relieve the condition. In acute case removal of gas with thick needle is
Urea poisoning (Urea/might have
been taken accidentally)
Clinical symptoms: Severe abdominal pain, tremors, dyspnoea and bloat.
Preventive care: Vinegar or 2%
acetic acid is to be given orally in repeated doses.
Verminous Pneumonia (Dictyocaulus
Clinical symptoms: Respiratory trouble with persistent or severe coughing.
There is usually a discharge from eye and nostrils.
Preventive care: Vaccination is
commonly used against D. filaria. Dictyciden and Diethylcarbamazine are
They occours frequently, can be found in udder, scrotum, lips, face, ear,
legs and coronet. The warts can be of many sizes from small to large
sizes. If goats have warts on teats, then during milking blood may
contaminate the milk. This have been treated by salicylic acid and acetic
The purpose of this paper is that farmer can check few visible symptom
and, first-aid which not only prevent the further deterioration of the
health of the goat, but it save the life. The farmer should be under stand
the complication of disease, and reach to the specialist or health worker
as early as possible. In case of danger of spreading contigeous diseases
in the herd, immediately, time action of seeking the advice of health
specialist can save the greater economic losses.